Marshall Fine Art Services
Glossary
Term
Definition
Acid-Free
Any material (usually paper or paper products) that does not contain or give off acids. Acid-free refers to items with a pH value between six and seven.

Many paper- or wood-based packaging and wrapping materials contain acids in one form or another. These acids can damage the materials that are wrapped in these products. For this reason, most materials used to package works of art must be acid-free.
Air Ride
A type of suspension system in trucks that supports the load on air-filled rubbers bags rather than on steel springs, significantly reducing the shocks and vibration normally experienced in transit. Trucks equipped with air ride capability are frequently required to transport sensitive works of art.
Art Sorb®
A brand of desiccant intended specifically for the providing moisture control protection for works of art. Art Sorb is available either in sheet form or beads. When used in a sealed space, Art Sorb maintains a stable relative humidity by taking in moisture when it’s too humid and releasing moisture when it’s too dry. Art Sorb is manufactured by Creative Humidity LLC.
Barrier Material
A material, such as plastic, paper or metal, that is impermeable to gas or liquid. They are used in the packaging and protecting of art objects to prevent harmful liquids or gases from coming in contact with the surface of the art.

Modern barrier materials are usually made from lightweight transparent plastic sheets or laminated (multi-layer) foils. Metal sheets (aluminum foil, for example) also have good barrier properties; they are often laminated with polyethylene and/or nylon to provide tear- and corrosion-resistance. Multiple materials are laminated for optimized barrier properties.

Barrier materials also protect against unwanted water infiltration, dust and hand perspiration and other potentially damaging contaminants.
Blocking
Relatively stiff materials used in packaging to immobilize items. Blocking can be used to fix an item within a crate or within a truck or shipping container. The term can also be used as a verb to refer to the process of putting blocking into a crate.
Cavity Packing
A packing process that involves cutting out a hole or cavity that matches the form on an object in protective foam.
Cleat Hanger
A picture hanging system consisting of interlocking aluminum “cleats;” capable of supporting very heavy items that no other hanging method can handle. The upper cleat is attached to the object’s frame and the lower cleat to the wall. Available in different lengths and weight classifications.

With this cleat hanging system it is very important that the wall cleat be installed perfectly level on the wall and the frame cleats be installed perfectly level on the frame. No significant leveling adjustments can be made afterwards.
Climate Controlled
Usually referring to air-conditioning of an internal environment. Climate control of transport vehicles such as trucks usually means heating or cooling. In general, climate control systems are used to ensure that art objects are contained within an environment having temperature and relative humidity conditions that remain within defined levels.
Condensation
The process of reducing a gas or vapor to a liquid or solid form. In packaging condensation can be a problem when humidity inside a package or container turns to liquid form and weakens packaging materials or damages the contents.
Coroplast™
A brand of corrugated plastic sheeting, available in both archival and non-archival forms. The trade name is frequently used as a generic term.

Coroplast Archival grade is a chemically inert, durable plastic sheet that has been produced without additives such as coloring agents, antistatic or ultraviolet inhibitors. Coroplast archival is suitable for backing and mounting as well as for the construction of containers. A superior substrate for long-term use with no out-gassing. It is resistant to water, oils, and solvents at room temperatures.

Coroplast Archival is not recommended for any application in which it is exposed to high amounts of UV radiation, including all uses outdoors.

Coroplast Archival is available in gauges of 2mm (in 54" widths) to 6mm (available to 104" widths).
Corrugated Board (or corrugated fiberboard)
A major packaging material that is produced in sheets and used to make corrugated (or “cardboard,” in layman’s terms) boxes. Note that the term corrugated board is frequently shortened to the word corrugated. For example, it is common for someone engaged in packaging to say that a box is made of corrugated.

Corrugated board consists of a central member (“medium”) that has been fluted or pleated on a machine called a “corrugator.” Flat layers of paperboard are glued to one or both sides of the fluted medium to form a single-faced or double-faced (single-wall) corrugated board. Additional walls and faces can be added to meet desired performance specifications.
Corrugated Plastic
An extruded plastic sheeting material that looks and functions much like corrugated cardboard except that it has the durability of plastic and is chemically inert; can be formed into boxes suitable for storage and transit. It is an excellent backing material for paintings and framed works on paper and far superior to conventional foam core backings. Due to its puncture resistant qualities, corrugated plastic is often used to cover the open space in transit frames. It is a stable material made from a copolymer of polypropylene and polyethylene.
Crate
A form of container having a framework and an outer shell, generally made of wood and used to protect to protect objects for shipment.

In fine arts packaging, there are several appropriate levels of crate design depending upon the fragility of the object and the demands of its transportation.
  • Economy (or basic) crates
  • Museum crates (very sturdy, designed for limited transit and storage)
  • Travel crates (designed for traveling exhibits and extensive transit)
  • Slat or skeleton crates (for large bulky objects that require less stringent protection
Dartek®
A nylon film that has no surface coatings; it is softer and more conforming than Mylar® or glassine, resulting in greater pliability over irregular surfaces. In addition, it is capable of absorbing up to 10% of its weight in moisture.

Dartek® is a good replacement for glassine when wrapping paintings that are susceptible to tackiness and abrasion; ideal for wrapping items for long-term storage in a dark environment. It is more expensive than glassine.
Desiccant
A “hygroscopic” substance (one that attracts water from a surrounding environment) used to induce or sustain a state of dryness in a local environment. A common example of a hygroscopic material is rice, which people often use in salt shakers to absorb moisture and keep the salt dry.

Desiccants are used in dealing with art objects to remove excessive humidity that could condense and degrade or even destroy sensitive materials or finishes. Desiccants are best used when placed in a sealed foil barrier bag to maintain a controlled humidity level.

ArtSorb® is brand of desiccant that is specifically manufactured for the art/museum field.
D-Ring
A type of heavy-duty picture hanger that has a D-shaped steel ring held by a doubled-over heavy steel strap.
Dunnage
Packaging material that is used primarily to fill void spaces or to pad objects in packages. Dunnage is not used for cushioning.
Encapsulation, complete
A method involving application of cushioning material completely around the entire exterior surface of an object to be packaged.
Esterfoam®
Ethafoam®
Felt
Soft, cloth material that is good for the short-term protection of delicate surfaces (for example, in transit rather than storage). The most desirable form is made of 100% cotton; most colors are not colorfast and should be washed before using. Cotton felt absorbs liquids and humidity. It can be used as a liner for foam padding.
Felt, Polyester
A soft, felt material that can be used for a variety of applications. It is excellent for lining slots in crates for non-ornate framed works and covering pallets for large sculptures. This material adds minimal cushion and is mostly used to cover wood and other hard surfaces that can damage an object. The material should not be used in slots containing frames with fragile surfaces or against objects with patinas and/or fragile finishes (the felt will buff or shine bronze surfaces).
Foam
A cellular plastic material into which air spaces have been introduced to increase volume and reduce density. Foam is widely used as protective packaging material and has unique shock absorbing abilities. It can be produced in sheets, molded into desired shapes or formed in situ.

Foam is available in a variety of materials and densities, each having different physical properties. For more details on each type of foam, see the individual materials:
Foam Board
A rigid board material consisting of a foam core sandwiched between two skins of paper; available in both archival and non-archival versions. Foam board is available in a variety of materials and configurations. The non-archival form is widely available in craft, office and building supply stores. It comes in a variety of colors, from 1/16 to several inches thick. It is very rigid and can be cut with a knife. It is not recyclable.

Some of the common brand names include Fome-Cor® and Gatorfoam® (both of which are made by 3A Composites USA), Ultra® foam board (made by Universal Industries), and Artcare™ archival foam board and Bainbridge foam board (both of which are produced by Nielsen & Bainbridge).

Fome-Cor® brand is available with an acid-free polystyrene core. Although the core is acid-free, the paper is made from wood fiber, which may become acidic over time. Ultra® foam board is available in a variety of paper surfaces and in very thick versions. It is among the most rigid foam boards available but is not an archival material. Gatorfoam® brand is denser and stronger than standard foam board. It is not an archival material.
Fome-Cor®
A brand of foam board produced by 3A Composites USA. Available in an acid-free version and in many different thicknesses and sheet sizes, it is widely used in fine arts packaging applications.

Foam-Cor® Board is available in three thicknesses (1/8”, 3/16” and 3/8”) and in sheet sizes up to five feet wide and ten feet long. Foam-Cor® Acid Free is available in two thicknesses (1/8” and 3/16”) and in standard sheet sizes up to 40” x 60”.
Gantry crane
A type of crane that lifts objects by a hoist supported by uprights, usually with wheels at the foot of the uprights allowing the entire crane to move.
Gatorboard
An extremely strong, light-weight type of foam board consisting of a rigid polystyrene foam core laminated between two faces of resin-impregnated wood-fiber sheets; produced by 3A Composites USA. Gator Board is available in thicknesses of ranging from 3/16” to 2” and in sheet sizes to 4’x8’.
Gatorfoam® or Gatorplast®
A brand of foam board produced by 3A Composites USA. Gatorfoam® is a sheet of extruded polystyrene foam bonded between two layers of wood-fiber veneer. Gatorplast® is a sheet of extruded polystyrene foam bonded between two layers of high-impact polystyrene facing sheets.

Despite its not being available in an acid-free form, Gatorfoam® is a widely-used product in fine arts packing applications. It is available in standard thickness from 3/16” to 2” and in sheet sizes from 4’x8’ to 5’x10’.
Glassine
A thin, semi-transparent, shiny paper that is strong but flexible. It is resistant to oils and greases and, when waxed or laminated, nearly impermeable to air and water. Glassine has been used as a facing for the wax lining of paintings since wax will not adhere strongly to it. However, testing has shown it to have an abrasive effect in certain applications. Acid-free glassine and buffered glassine tissues are available in rolls or flat sheets from archival suppliers.
Gore-Tex®
A barrier laminate with polyester felt on one side and Teflon on the other. It is impermeable to such liquids as water, yet it transmits moisture and other vapors, making it ideal for art humidification. The porous quality of the membrane allows for the release of vapors while restricting the passage of larger molecules of the same compound (creates a moisture barrier while allowing the object to breathe).

Gore-Tex® (produced by W. L. Gore & Associates) is excellent for wrapping objects and lining cavities. It has an extremely slick surface and is very durable. It is an excellent material to use against larger or heavier items that have extremely fragile surfaces. However, Gore-Tex® is extremely expensive and generally is used only when other materials fail to meet the need of the object.
Heat treat
A process by which heat is used to treat dimensional lumber, destroying insects that might have infected the wood. Heat treating has become a requirement for all lumber used for exports in order to prevent the inadvertent importation of insects into a country via infected wood packaging.

Heat treatment regulations are governed by ISPM No. 15, the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures number 15, the regulation of wood packaging materials for international trade.
Heat treat stamp
A stamp or marking placed on wood packaging materials to verify that the material has been heat treated in accordance with the standards of ISPM No. 15.

All wood used to make crates that will be shipped internationally must carry a heat treat stamp.
Honeycomb
A material consisting of Kraft-liner formed into continuous uniform hexagonal cells. The hexagonal structure makes this material quite strong (capable of supporting up to four tons per square foot maximum vertical compression).
Immobilize
To make the external parts of an object essentially stationary relative to each other. In art handling it is frequently necessary to immobilize free-moving or flexible components of an object so that they do not shift in transit, causing damage or being damaged.
J-Bar
(or “Johnson Bar”)
A wheeled prybar with an extended handle and a deep flat “tongue” for lifting the edge of a heavy object.
KD crane
A form of lifting device that may be knocked down for easy movement or transportation. KD cranes are very useful for small lifting jobs and for lifting moderately heavy objects indoors.
Kraft Paper
A type of industrial paper produced by the Kraft process from wood pulp. It is strong, inexpensive and recyclable. However, it has several weaknesses when used to wrap works of art: it is relatively coarse and abrasive, it has a high acid content and it absorbs moisture.

Kraft paper is usually a brown color but can be bleached to produce white paper. It is the paper used for to make common packaging products such as grocery bags.
Lift Points
Specific locations on a heavy or awkwardly shaped object where the manufacturer has provided rings or other devices for lifting the object.
Loose Fill
An inexpensive, flexible cushioning material made from plastic foam beads (often referred to as “peanuts”). Loose fill can easily shift in transit, diminishing cushioning value, especially with heavier objects. Best used if peanuts are consolidated into bags to prevent shifting, reduce dust and simplify clean-up. Most museums do not like the clean-up and disposal issues associated with loose fill.
Low-tack tape
A type of adhesive tape that has a reduced amount of stickiness, enabling it to be used temporarily and then removed without damaging or marking the taped surface.
MarvelSeal®
A type of barrier material made from aluminum foil sandwiched between a transparent nylon film and a layer of heat-sealable polyethylene. MarvelSeal® is strong, waterproof, vapor proof and very flexible. It is excellent for lining transport crates when objects are going to be stored in them for long periods of time. The material easily welds to itself and other surfaces by the application of heat. Custom-made bags can also be made to completely encapsulate an object. MarvelSeal® is produced by John Dawson Enterprises Ltd. of England.
Masonite®
Masonite is a rigid sheet material manufactured from steamed wood fibers. As no glues or formaldehyde-based resins are used in the manufacturing process, Masonite is more environmentally (and archivally) friendly than other composite wood products. Artists often use Masonite as backings for painting, instead of traditional framed canvases.
Mat
(or Mat Board)
A piece of fiber board or other material placed over or under a drawing, painting, photograph, etc., to serve as a frame or provide a border between the picture and the frame and glass.
MDO Plywood
“Medium Density Overlay” plywood. An engineered wood, frequently used in making museum crates, that consists of a wood core similar to normal plywood, with resin-impregnated fiber surfaces (overlays) applied to both sides. The overlaid surfaces are resist abrasion and moisture penetration and do not require additional finishing.
Moisture Barrier
Muslin
Soft, cloth material, though abrasive to some surfaces; useful as a protective layer or dust cover where soiling may be a problem.
Mylar®
A brand of polyester film that is chemically stable (will not off-gas) and with a neutral pH. Mylar® is used to provide a protective barrier in packing to keep objects from contacting with non-archival materials.
Nomex®
A family of foam products (produced by DuPont) that is available in a variety of forms from very soft and fibrous to more rigid. The softer products are generally used for packing museum objects. Nomex® is an excellent material for lining cavities cut from polyester foam or Ethafoam®. Nomex’s® unique ability to stretch in one direction prevents bunching and folding of loose material within a cavity. Although Nomex® has a soft surface, it is also fibrous and should only be used with objects that have smooth surfaces that are not likely to snag or catch on its fibers. It is permeable to air and water; non-dusting, chemically inert and flame resistant. Not all Nomex® products possess all these properties in one product.
Off-gas
The slow release of a gas that is contained within a material; sometimes called “out-gassing.” For example, the wood used in crating a work of art can give off acid as it dries, causing damage to the object stored within the crate. Off-gassing can be significant if it collects in a closed environment where air is stagnant (such as a storage crate). For this reason, materials use to pack, wrap, shield or store works of art must be chosen to avoid off-gassing.
Ozclip™
A multi-purpose hanging and security device, designed as a permanent attachment to framed artworks. It holds the painting in a secure way while hanging or traveling.

The Ozclip™ hanging system consists of two types of clips: the Ozclip™ hanging device, with stainless loop for attachment to hanging wire and the Ozclip™ holding device, without loop for permanent attachment, but used in transportation only. Ozclip™ is compatible with existing hanging techniques and can be used with most traveling and storage frames and cases. The Oz Clip™ holding device without loop is for transportation use only.
Packing blanket
A material that provides an excellent source of protection. Most packing pads or blankets are cloth with cotton-batten filing and quilted stitching. There are also paper pads or throw-away pads that have a paper cover with cotton or other filling, but are for a single use.
Pallet jack, pallet truck
A mobile lifting platform having two arms or forks that are inserted underneath a pallet or packing case. Pallet jacks do not have the lifting or stacking capability of a fork lift truck. They can be hand-operated (as illustrated below) or rider-controlled. Pallet jacks are used primarily to simplify the movement of palletized objects around a museum or storage warehouse.
pH
A standard scientific scale (ranging from zero to 14) used to measure the level of acid in a substance. A pH of 7.0 is defined as neutral. Values between zero and seven are considered acidic and values higher than seven are basic.
Polyester Batting
An extremely soft material that can act as cushioning in cavities and as loose fill in interior foam board or corrugated plastic boxes. This material, due to its fibrous nature, needs to be used in conjunction with a soft wrap (objects can easily snag if not covered properly).
Polyester Film
An extruded sheet of polyester resin. Polyester films are typically stiff but flexible and highly transparent. They are dimensionally and chemically stable. Polyester film, such as Mylar®, is used for storage sleeves, protective linings and to wrap materials that are to be packed in non-archival cases.
Polyester Foam
A type of foam used for cushioning an object against shock and vibration. Also has thermal insulating qualities.
Polyethylene Foam
A type of foam made from expanded polyethylene plastic, consisting of many tiny bubbles (“closed cells”) filled with air; used in protective packaging and for padding. Polyethylene foam is inert and acid-free. It has excellent “memory” and can therefore withstand repeated shocks. The foam is virtually impermeable to water and has stable chemical properties making it a suitable material for long term storage containers. It has a naturally waxy surface quality.

Polyethylene foam is available in sheets and rolls from 1/8 to 4 inches thick; 20 to 48 inches wide, and 108 inches long. Importantly, polyethylene foam is available in a wide variety of densities that can be tailored to the weight or configuration to a specific work of art.

Some of the common brand names include Ethafoam® (manufactured by Dow Chemical), Polyplank® (manufactured by Pactiv Corporation), and Volara® (manufactured by Sekisui Voltek, LLC), which is well-suited for direct contact with delicate surfaces as it is smooth and non-abrasive. There is also a recycled product, Ricter Foam®, with a 1.7 density. It is chemically inert and is non -abrasive. It can degrade in ultraviolet light (sunlight).
Polyethylene Sheeting
(or “Polyethylene / Poly Film”)
A common form of inert plastic sheeting used to protect against humidity, water or dirt. Made in a variety of widths and thicknesses; clear or opaque; will deteriorate after time when exposed to sunlight (the UV component). It is water repellent, especially if seams are sealed. It is non-abrasive if clean.

When used to protect art objects, it should be of good grade and quality without residues, grease, talc, or other substances added to it. Look for virgin plastics with no impurities or other plastics mixed in.
Polypropylene Foam
A durable, non-dusting foam that offers very good cushioning properties at low densities. It is chemical and moisture resistant and has a good thermal insulating factor. It is comparable to polyethylene foam in memory, shock, and vibration absorption.

Polypropylene Foam Wrap - (Astro-Foam®, Micro-Foam®) - Waterproof if properly sealed. Combines positive cushioning properties with low abrasion. This material is similar to polyethylene, the material used for Ethafoam®, but it is slightly less dense and has a higher gloss. It comes in thin rolls 1/8 to _ inch thick. A recycled product is available. It is chemically inert and non-abrasive.
Polypropylene Wrap
A chemically inert and breathable wrapping material that protects the surface while also providing cushioning. Polypropylene wrap is an excellent material for soft packing paintings and framed works for local or one-way travel. It has a slick outer surface that makes it ideal for interleaving objects (plates, cups, etc.) for one-way travel. This material can be used in combination with polyethylene sheeting when an object needs to be completely sealed and cushioned.
Polystyrene Foam
A low-cost, lightweight, rigid plastic foam with a closed cell structure; frequently referred to as Styrofoam™, a brand produced by Dow Chemical Company.

Polystyrene foam has very little recoverability (meaning that once damaged it will not return to its original shape) and is therefore better for filler in a case or crate than for cushioning. However, if used in conjunction with polyethylene foam (for cushioning), it can be a cost-effective means of insulating and cushioning a case or crate.

Polystyrene foam is available in sheets (usually 4 x 8 feet) and a wide range of thicknesses from _ inch up.

It is not environmentally sound and very toxic if heated. Almost all polystyrene is now CFC-free.
Polystyrene Pellets
(“Peanuts”)
A form of molded Polystyrene foam, produced in a shape that looks like peanuts or popcorn. (Also referred to as “loose fill.”) Because polystyrene pellets are both lightweight and slick, heavy objects encased in them will tend to migrate to the bottom of a case or crate, reducing the protective value. Therefore, “peanuts” should only be used with light objects. Placing the pellets in zipper-closing bags will limit shifting as well as contain particles and dust. Use only with great caution. Do not dump loose, individual pellets into a container.
Polystyrene Sheeting
This translucent plastic sheeting material that may be used for making sides of transit frames or added to the sides of cardboard boxes.
Polyurethane Foams
Polyurethane foams typically have one of two other components: ethers and esters. Although the ester variety degrades at a slower rate, both will turn yellow over time and become brittle, thereby losing their initial cushioning properties. Off-gassing is minimal, and it doesn’t become particularly acidic over time. In general, direct contact of PU foams with art objects should be avoided.

Polyurethane Ester Foam – Ester-based foams are a better quality foam, and have a softer, have somewhat of a “silkier” feel. They tend to last longer as they are more tear-resistant, but are significantly more expensive.

Polyurethane Ether Foam - The large majority of polyurethane foams are ether-based. They tend to become more brittle with time, and discolor faster. They are readily available and come in sheets from _ inch thick to as thick as you want. Ether foam can be cut with a kitchen knife; has a resilience memory; has insulating capabilities and absorbs moisture. It can be recycled, but is not biodegradable. There is a great range in densities available in the ether variety, from very soft to much more firm.
Quilted Paper
Lightweight quilted pads. Good for general cushioning of non-delicate surfaces; high-acid content; not very effective without supplemental cushioning. (Jiffy wrap, Custom wrap)
Recoverability
The ability of a cushioning material to regain its original dimensions following removal of a shock or deforming load.
Relative Humidity
(RH)
The actual amount of moisture in the air at a given temperature relative to the total amount of moisture the air could hold at the same temperature. It is a measure of the amount of water vapor air holds at a given temperature.

RH is important in dealing with fine arts as changes in RH can cause deterioration of many sensitive materials, particularly in old painted or wooden objects. In addition, high RH inside a case or crate can lead to condensation and moisture being trapped inside, leading to mold, mildew and other harmful conditions.
Security Hanger
A device for hanging pictures that is designed to deter unauthorized individuals from lifting a framed picture off its hanging support. With most systems, removal of a picture from the wall requires turning concealed T-head screws hidden behind the frame or the use of a special wrench. Security hangers cannot prevent theft; they can only deter it.
Shrink wrapping
A process of using heat (generally hot air) to shrink an envelope of polyethylene or similar substance to enclose a large product in a protective covering. Shrink wrapping is for containment, not cushioning.
Silica Gel
A form of desiccant made from sodium silicate; despite its name silica gel is a porous granular substance. Silica gel's high surface area (around 800 m_/g) allows it to adsorb water readily, making it useful as a drying agent to protect works of art from excessive moisture.

Silica gel can adsorb 30-40% of its dry weight and responds more quickly than other sorbents to variations in relative humidity. The gel rapidly senses, corrects, and stabilizes fluctuations in relative humidity by humidifying or dehumidifying the air around it to maintain its own preferred environment.
Silicone Release Paper
A coated paper product (white in color), similar to glassine, but impregnated with silicone. It provides a very slick, very hard surface that prevents other materials from sticking to it. For that reason, silicone release paper is used for wrapping artwork, in packing, storage and restoration. Silicone release tape is recommended for use with silicone release paper. Silicone-release products are fairly expensive.
Slat
(or “Skeleton”) Crate
An open “see through” style of crate best suited to sculpture and other large, stable objects. Recommended for when ease of access for bracing around complicated objects is important. Can be encased in a full crate if weatherproofing is required or sealed with rigid sheet materials.
Soft Packing
A method of packing an object without enclosing it in a hard shell box or case. Soft packing is a convenient and inexpensive way to protect an object but it does not provide the degree of protection that is appropriate for many complex or long distance transport.

Soft packing can fail in two critical ways when compared to a hard packing case or crate:
  • There is virtually no protection from physical impact or penetration of the packing.
  • There is very little protection against environmental changes.

For this reason, soft packing is used primarily for short moves, including within a museum building or complex.

A variety of materials can be used for soft packing: blankets, tissue, bubble wrap, cardboard, foam board, transit frames, foams, foam beads and straps.

Styrofoam™
See: Polystyrene foam. Styrofoam™ is manufactured by Dow Chemical Company.
Teflon®
Offers a non-abrasive surface that, when used in conjunction with polyester batting material, is an excellent lining for cavities. This material is extremely stretchable and can easily conform to the shape of the object and cavity. Teflon’s® main limitation is that it is extremely thin and can puncture easily. It is mostly used with light objects with extremely fragile surfaces. The material is available in rolls 12 inches wide; and stretches in all directions, and is expensive.
Tissue Paper
(also: Buffered Tissue, Acid-Free Tissue)
A form of paper that is made from a pulp that contains an acidic component, lignin; it is generally very thin and relatively inexpensive. Acid-free tissue paper does not contain lignin, and is made from higher quality pulp. Acid-free tissues can also be buffered, which means that a component is added to push the pH of the paper to a neutral or slightly alkaline range. Buffered tissue is also soft, and is excellent for building up layers on objects to protect smaller areas or to build out areas with protrusions and filling voids on three-dimensional objects. When crumpled, it can provide a bed in which to lay an object, but it does compress.
Travel
(or “Traveling”)
Frame
An open wooden frame to which paintings are attached; provides a shell and structure around the painting to protect it in transit. Travel frames attach to the back of a painting and allow a free space around the face and sides of the work. They are less expensive than a full crate and can be reused. Frequently used for paintings with ornate frames.
Travel
(or “Traveling”)
Case/ Crate
A type of case built to withstand the abuse and hazards of extensive use, such as for a multi-trip tour; usually equipped with fastening hardware on the lid; is weather- and usually water-resistant.
Tyvek®
A sheet material made of polyethylene fibers; extremely strong and tear-resistant. Tyvek® is a high-strength barrier and wrapping material. It is mold and mildew resistant. It is non-woven, and does not have exposed fibers that can easily catch on fragile surfaces. It is a durable material that cannot be easily torn or ripped. Its durability allows it to be used against heavy items. It can be sewn or glued to make good covers for objects being stored. It is lint-free, acid-free, and is resistant to wetting, but it allows transmission of moisture and vapor. Tyvek® crate liner is waterproof; relatively inexpensive and chemically stable. Because vapors can transmit through Tyvek®, its use as a barrier to plywood and/or glue off-gassing, especially in a storage situation, may not be the best choice.

Soft Tyvek® - A softer version of Tyvek; non-abrasive, gas permeable, non-dusting, water resistant, inert material; excellent for lining cavities and covering foam pads. This is a relatively inexpensive material that offers some advantages over the more costly lining materials. However, Soft Tyvek® does not stretch and therefore can bunch in cavities and it has a texture that is not suitable for all surfaces.

Tyvek® and Soft Tyvek® are both produced by DuPont.
Volara®
See: Polyethylene foam. Volara is manufactured by Sekisui Voltek, LLC.
Sources: Marshall Fine Arts Ltd., PACIN, The New Museum Registration Methods